- He was a senior United States Army officer, most famous as the commander of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) on the Western Front in World War I, 1917–18
|Real name:||John Joseph Pershing|
|Born:||13 September 1860 Comment |
|When did John J. Pershing die? / Died||15 July 1948|
|How many years did John J. Pershing live? / Lived||87 years|
|Where was John J. Pershing born?||Laclede, Missouri, US|
|Where did John J. Pershing die? / Deathplace ||Washington, D.C., US|
|Nicknames:||General Pershing, Black Jack|
Who was John J. Pershing? / Facts
- He rejected British and French demands that American forces be integrated with their armies, and insisted that the AEF would operate as a single unit under his command, although some American divisions fought under British command, and he also allowed all-black units to be integrated with the French army
- American forces first saw serious battle at Cantigny, Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, and Soissons
- To speed up the arrival of the doughboys, they embarked for France leaving the heavy equipment behind, and used British and French tanks, artillery, airplanes and other munitions
- In September 1918 at St. Mihiel, the First Army was directly under Pershing's command; it overwhelmed the salient which the German Army had held for three years
- For the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Pershing shifted roughly 600,000 American soldiers to the heavily defended forests of the Argonne, keeping his divisions engaged in hard fighting for 47 days, alongside the French
- The Allied Hundred Days Offensive, which the Argonne fighting was part of, resulted in Germany calling for an armistice
- Pershing was of the opinion that the war should continue and that all of Germany should be occupied in an effort to permanently destroy German militarism
- Pershing is the only American to be promoted in his own lifetime to General of the Armies, the highest possible rank in the United States Army; an act was passed in 1976 retroactively promoting George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority, ensuring that he would always be considered the senior ranking officer in the United States Army
- Allowed to select his own insignia, Pershing chose to use four gold stars to distinguish himself from those officers who held the rank of General
- After the creation of the five-star General of the Army rank during World War II, his rank of General of the Armies could unofficially be considered that of a six-star general, but he died before the proposed insignia could be considered and acted on by Congress
- Some of his tactics have been criticized both by other commanders at the time and by modern historians
Bio / wiki sources: Wikipedia, accounts on social media, content from our users.
Info source: Wikipedia, social media accounts, users content.
Last update: 18 August 2017
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